This guidance applies to all first responders, including law enforcement, fire services, emergency medical services, and emergency management officials, who anticipate close contact with persons with confirmed or possible COVID-19 in the course of their work.
Updated March 10, 2020
Emergency medical services (EMS) play a vital role in responding to requests for assistance, triaging patients, and providing emergency medical treatment and transport for ill persons. However, unlike patient care in the controlled environment of a healthcare facility, care and transports by EMS present unique challenges because of the nature of the setting, enclosed space during transport, frequent need for rapid medical decision-making, interventions with limited information, and a varying range of patient acuity and jurisdictional healthcare resources.
When preparing for and responding to patients with confirmed or possible coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), close coordination and effective communications are important among 911 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs)— commonly known as 911 call centers, the EMS system, healthcare facilities, and the public health system. Each PSAP and EMS system should seek the involvement of an EMS medical director to provide appropriate medical oversight. For the purposes of this guidance, “EMS clinician” means prehospital EMS and medical first responders. When COVID-19 is suspected in a patient needing emergency transport, prehospital care providers and healthcare facilities should be notified in advance that they may be caring for, transporting, or receiving a patient who may have COVID-19 infection.
Updated information about COVID-19 may be accessed at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html. Infection prevention and control recommendations can be found here: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/hcp/infection-control.html. Additional information for healthcare personnel can be found at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/guidance-hcp.html.
Case Definition for COVID-19
CDC’s most current case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for COVID-19 may be accessed at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/clinical-criteria.html.
Municipalities and local EMS authorities should coordinate with state and local public health, PSAPs, and other emergency call centers to determine need for modified caller queries about COVID-19, outlined below.
Development of these modified caller queries should be closely coordinated with an EMS medical director and informed by local, state, and federal public health authorities, including the city or county health department(s), state health department(s), and CDC.
PSAPs or Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) centers (as appropriate) should question callers and determine the possibility that this call concerns a person who may have signs or symptoms and risk factors for COVID-19. The query process should never supersede the provision of pre-arrival instructions to the caller when immediate lifesaving interventions (e.g., CPR or the Heimlich maneuver) are indicated. Patients in the United States who meet the appropriate criteria should be evaluated and transported as a PUI. Information on COVID-19 will be updated as the public health response proceeds. PSAPs and medical directors can access CDC’s PUI definitions here.
Information on a possible PUI should be communicated immediately to EMS clinicians before arrival on scene in order to allow use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). PSAPs should utilize medical dispatch procedures that are coordinated with their EMS medical director and with the local or state public health department.
PSAPs and EMS units that respond to ill travelers at US international airports or other ports of entry to the United States (maritime ports or border crossings) should be in contact with the CDC quarantine station of jurisdiction for the port of entry (see: CDC Quarantine Station Contact List) for planning guidance. They should notify the quarantine station when responding to that location if a communicable disease is suspected in a traveler. CDC has provided job aids for this purpose to EMS units operating routinely at US ports of entry. The PSAP or EMS unit can also call CDC’s Emergency Operations Center at (770) 488-7100 to be connected with the appropriate CDC quarantine station.
EMS clinician practices should be based on the most up-to-date COVID-19 clinical recommendations and information from appropriate public health authorities and EMS medical direction.
State and local EMS authorities may direct EMS clinicians to modify their practices as described below.
If a patient with an exposure history and signs and symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 requires transport to a healthcare facility for further evaluation and management (subject to EMS medical direction), the following actions should occur during transport:
The following are general guidelines for cleaning or maintaining EMS transport vehicles and equipment after transporting a PUI:
EMS clinicians should be aware of the follow-up and/or reporting measures they should take after caring for a PUI or patient with confirmed COVID-19:
The responsibilities described in this section are not specific for the care and transport of PUIs or patients with confirmed COVID-19. However, this interim guidance presents an opportunity to assess current practices and verify that training and procedures are up-to-date.